Chemical speciation and extraction methods for fission products in Molten Salt Reactor

Chemical speciation and extraction methods for fission products in Molten Salt Reactor

Published Deadline Location
20 Jun 15 Aug Delft

Job description

The molten salt reactor (MSR) was selected as one of the promising designs by the International Generation IV Forum for the next generation of nuclear reactors. Running on a liquid molten salt fuel as opposed to the current generation of nuclear reactors, the Molten Salt Reactor technology provides a safe and truly innovative concept. Moreover, it can be coupled to a thorium fuel cycle, which produces much less long-lived radioactive waste and allows a more sustainable energy production, as thorium is three times more abundant on Earth than uranium. However, before the Molten Salt Reactor technology can be realised, a thorough safety assessment of all components of the reactor must be carried out. In particular, understanding the chemistry of the liquid fuel and acquiring a thorough knowledge of its physical and chemical properties such as density, viscosity, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and vapour pressure, is essential. During irradiation, many fission products are generated, and corrosion products are expected to dissolve with time, making the fuel a complex, multi-component system. The MSR designs moreover implement a very innovative fuel management, which allows the control and the extraction of some of the fission products while operating the reactor. At present, helium bubbling is seen as the most promising technique for in-core removal of gaseous fission products (neutron poisoning elements) as well as noble and semi-noble metal fission products which are insoluble in the fuel salt.

The goal of this PhD will be to improve the understanding of the behaviour of key fission products and corrosion products in MSR fuel, and to establish the feasibility of noble metal particles extraction using helium gas and to evaluate the efficiency of the process. To achieve this, the candidate will perform research on the following two key lines:

•              Thermochemistry and evaluation of the thermo-physical properties of key fission products and corrosion products. The candidate will develop a thermochemical model to describe the chemistry of the fuel and the most important volatile fission products, noble metals and their fluoride phases, and corrosion products. The required thermodynamic data for relevant sub-systems will be assessed coupling experimental measurements by calorimetry, ab-initio/molecular dynamics simulations, and CALPHAD thermodynamic modelling. In addition, the retention capacity of the fuel salt for volatile fission products will be investigated as a measure to reduce the source term. The work will involve a collaboration with NRG in Petten and the JRC Karlsruhe.

•              Experimental verification of the formation process and extraction efficiency of metallic particles in molten salts. Following the results of a recent reconnaissance study on noble metal extraction by helium bubbling in simulant fluids, an experimental setup for molten salts will be developed to study the mechanisms of the process in further detail, which will serve as mock-up for future irradiation tests in the High Flux Reactor (HFR, Petten). The work will involve a collaboration with NRG in Petten.

As part of the PhD project, the candidate will supervise bachelor and/or master students, and will contribute to some educational activities.

This PhD position will involve a close collaboration between the Department of Radiation, Science and Technology (RST) of TU Delft, NRG in Petten (Nuclear Research & Consultancy group) and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in Karlsruhe (JRC Karlsruhe).

 

Specifications

Delft University of Technology (TU Delft)

Requirements

We are looking for an outstanding candidate with a master degree in Chemistry, Materials Science, Applied Science or a related field. Candidate should have an affinity for multidisciplinary fields of research and a hands-on attitude towards experimental work. Computer skills in simulation and modelling are also desirable. We expect creativity, flexibility and ability to co-operate within an interdisciplinary research group. Excellent communication skills, including good written and spoken English, as well as the ability to conduct independent scientific work are required. Delft University of Technology is a bilingual organisation; fluency in English is essential. 

Conditions of employment

TU Delft offers a customisable compensation package, a discount for health insurance and sport memberships, and a monthly work costs contribution. Flexible work schedules can be arranged. An International Children’s Centre offers childcare and an international primary school. Dual Career Services offers support to accompanying partners. Salary and benefits are in accordance with the Collective Labour Agreement for Dutch Universities.

As a PhD candidate you will be enrolled in the TU Delft Graduate School. TU Delft Graduate School provides an inspiring research environment; an excellent team of supervisors, academic staff and a mentor; and a Doctoral Education Programme aimed at developing your transferable, discipline-related and research skills. Please visit www.tudelft.nl/phd for more information.

Fixed-term contract: 4 years

Employer

Delft University of Technology

Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) is a multifaceted institution offering education and carrying out research in the technical sciences at an internationally recognised level. Education, research and design are strongly oriented towards applicability. TU Delft develops technologies for future generations, focusing on sustainability, safety and economic vitality. At TU Delft you will work in an environment where technical sciences and society converge. TU Delft comprises eight faculties, unique laboratories, research institutes and schools.

https://www.tudelft.nl

Department

Faculty Applied Sciences

The Faculty of Applied Sciences is the largest faculty of TU Delft, with around 550 scientists, a support staff of 250 and 1,800 students. The faculty conducts fundamental, application-oriented research and offers scientific education at the bachelor, master and doctoral levels. The faculty is active in the fields of Life and Health Science & Technology, Nanoscience, Chemical Engineering, Radiation Science & Technology, and Applied Physics.

The department of Radiation Science & Technology (www.rst.tudelft.nl) focuses on research and education in materials, energy and health with radiation as the common denominator. Fields of interest are sustainable nuclear energy, medical radioisotopes, materials for energy storage and conversion, medical technology for diagnosis and therapy, and advanced instrumentation.

https://www.tudelft.nl/en/faculty-of-applied-sciences

Additional information

For more information about this position, please contact Dr. Anna Smith, Assistant Professor, phone: +31 (0)15-2782106, e-mail: A.L.Smith@tudelft.nl. To apply, please e-mail 1) a detailed CV along with 2) a one-page letter of motivation 3) a grade list 4) contact information of at least two references to Mrs. Trudy Beentjes, Management Assistant, e-mail: secr-rpnm-TNW@tudelft.nl. Put everything in one PDF-file.

When applying for this position, please refer to vacancy number TNWRST19-040.

Specifications

  • PhD positions
  • Natural Sciences
  • 38—40 hours per week
  • €2325—€2972 per month
  • University Graduate
  • TNWRST19-040

Employer

Delft University of Technology (TU Delft)

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Location

Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft

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Application procedure

Application procedure

Make sure to apply no later than 15 Aug 2019 23:59 (Europe/Amsterdam).